By Arthur D. Efland
An exam of the cognitive implications of schooling within the arts to work out how, or no matter if, contributors can enhance their powers of proposal extra totally via widening their realizing of the humanities. the writer discusses 3 difficulties which may have an effect on the prestige of arts in the school room.
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Additional info for Art and Cognition: Integrating the Visual Arts in the Curriculum
Eisner, 1976, p. viii) Although Eisner (1976) dwelt on the contrast between the cognitive and the affective, he also asked, “If work in the arts is cognitive or intellectual, in what way is it so? ” (p. viii; emphasis in original). Eisner’s questions harbor the legacy of the arts being categorized as a noncognitive field. At the time of his writing, the disjunction between the cognitive and noncognitive was accepted as an unassailable certainty,5 and yet it seemed to him that categorizing the arts as members of an affective domain denied their cognitive character.
Moreover, he suggested that “we are thus dealing with a creative process very different from the simple reading of reality invoked by empiricism” (Piaget, 1987, p. 3). For Piaget, possibility in cognition meant essentially invention and creation, and this was an important feature of his constructivism (Piaget, 1987). Thus, Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories differ in their account of the human capacity to create higher forms of knowledge, especially those that involve imagination. 2 summarizes the differences between the developmental approaches of Piaget and those of Vygotsky.
Parsons’s Developmental Stages for Understanding Art Stage Verbal Indicators Psychological Attributes 1. ” Pleasure is the organizing principle. 2. Beauty and realism (age 10): Good and bad art differentiated on the basis of pictorial content “It’s gross! ” Representation becomes the operative idea. Attractive subject matter and realistic representation are objective grounds for judgments. 3. ” Intensity and interest assure us that the experience expressed is genuine. Skill or beauty of subject matter is secondary.