By Lemos J.P. (ed.)

Lawsuits of the tenth Portuguese assembly: Centra, Lisbon, Portugal, 27-28 July 2000

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**Extra resources for Astronomy and Astrophysics: Recent Developments**

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Tr/M„ FIG. : The space of initial conditions for hybrid inflation (left panel). White regions correspond to initial conditions which give rise to successful inflation (Ne{0[^ > 70), while black regions correspond to initial conditions which quickly lead the fields to the a± minima with no successful inflation. Although hard to see, the successful region is a very narrow strip at the a = 0 axis, along with some scattered points off-axis. The right panel shows the space of initial conditions for hybrid inflation on the brane, with A6 = 6 x 1 0 " 8 M*v m — 2 x 1 0 - 6 Mpi, and M — 1 0 - 2 Mp\.

This provides a 'violation of causality', as required by Liddle's criterion. The only distinguishing characteristic of this model, by comparison with the simplest inflationary models, will be a small non-Gaussian signal which could be detected by future experiments. In fact, one can even think n of an alternative model arising in the same context, but where the defect-induced primordial fluctuations are also Gaussian. In this case we require that the characteristic speed of the decay products of the defect network is much larger than the speed characterising gravity and all the standard model particles.

Newberg, S. Nobili, P. Nugent, R. Pain, S. Perlmutter, R. Quimby, G. Richards, P. Ruiz-Lapuente, B. Shaeffer, N. Walton, T. York and with R. J. Agostinho, J. Lin Yun, F . D. Santos from Observatorio Astronomico de Lisboa. 32 33 from the spectral and photometric observations. Soon after the discovery of supernovae subclasses it was realized that the events classified as type la subclass were bright and homogeneous enough that could be used as cosmological distance indicators (Colgate, 1979; Branch & Tammann 1992).