Comparative Religion

Calendar and Chronology, Jewish and Christian: Biblical, by Roger T Beckwith

By Roger T Beckwith

This article offers with a number of tough difficulties in Jewish and early Christian concept and perform, in the common parts of the calendar and chronology. New difficulties are tackled, and previous difficulties are reconsidered. the recent difficulties are intertestamental, and comprise the Qumran calendar, the levels within the improvement of Judaism among the Testaments, and some of the chronologies utilized in early Judaism to degree previous and destiny time. those chapters are typically of Jewish curiosity, although the last-mentioned has a Christian bearing additionally, centering because it does on messianic expectation. The outdated difficulties all have a Christian bearing, and are biblical or patristic, even though illustrated right here via intertestamental proof. They contain the connection among the Sabbath and Sunday, the date of the crucifixion, the beginning of Easter and Whitsun, and the date of Christmas.

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Additional resources for Calendar and Chronology, Jewish and Christian: Biblical, Intertestamental and Patristic Studies (Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums)

Example text

On the matter of the Sabbath, it is characteristic of Hellenistic literature to view it as a creation ordinance, common to all mankind, and it is characteristic of Semitic literature (though with some qualifications) to view it as an ordinance peculiar to Israel. The New Testament treatment of the matter seems to owe quite as much to the Hellenistic tradition as to the Semitic. C. produced an exposition of the Old Testament Law, fragments of which are preserved by Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius 5 .

The fragment here quoted comes in Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel 13:12. applied in the case of wisdom, for from it all light proceeds.... e. Wisdom) has existed before heaven and earth; which indeed agrees with what has been said above. But what is clearly stated by the Law, that God rested on the seventh day, means not, as some suppose, that God henceforth ceases to do anything, but it refers to the fact that, after he has brought the arrangement of his works to completion, he has arranged them thus for all time....

2:3), as the fourth commandment recalled, and the primaiy form of this blessing was rest. The weekly change from toil provided by the Sabbath rest was a requirement of nature, and was not to be refused either to servants or to animals (Exod. 23:12; Deut. 5:140· Yet at the same time it differed from nightly rest, in that it was not involuntary, a demand of the exhausted body and mind which could not be denied, but was deliberate, a submission to G o d ' s commandment. The day was not simply set apart from toil but was set apart to God.

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